Save the Environment

Objective

To create an awareness of how to save the environment. 

 

Theory

Waste  

A product or substance that is no longer suitable for its intended use is referred to as waste. 

Waste comes from four different types of sources: industrial, commercial, domestic, and agricultural. 

Industrial waste  

Industrial waste is the waste created by industrial activity, including any material made unusable during a manufacturing process, such as that of factories, mills, and mining activities. Some examples of industrial waste are - chemicals, oils, solvents, dirt and gravel, many harmful gases, etc. 

Commercial waste  

Paper, cardboard, cans, food wrappers, etc., are some examples of commercial waste. 

Domestic waste  

Domestic waste is also known as household waste, and it comes from the discarded items produced by households. 

Some domestic waste includes food waste, rotten vegetables, fruits, etc.  

Agriculture waste 

Agricultural waste is made up of plant residues from farming. These effluents arise from horticulture and arable land. It also includes animal waste. 

Some crop residues include bagasse, leaves, peel, straw, stem, shell, stalk, husk, pulp, stubble, etc.; animal waste includes carcasses and excreta. 

Electronic waste 

Electronic waste, also known as e-waste, is the term used to describe discarded electronic equipment and devices that have reached the end of their useful lives. A wide variety of products fall under this category, including computers, cell phones, televisions, refrigerators, and other electrical equipment. 

Due to the presence of hazardous elements like lead, mercury, cadmium, and other toxins in electronic equipment, e-waste is emerging as a significant environmental concern. Inappropriately discarding electronic waste through methods like incineration or depositing it in landfills can pose environmental risks and compromise the well-being of individuals. 

To reduce the negative effects on the environment and recover valuable materials from these gadgets, efforts to manage electronic trash frequently entail recycling and appropriate disposal techniques. 

 

There are two main categories of waste they are - 

1. Biodegradable waste  

A biodegradable material can be defined as a waste material that can be decomposed by bacteria or other natural organisms without causing any pollution. The waste materials are degraded by biological factors like microbes for example - bacteria, fungi, and a few more) and abiotic elements like temperature, UV, oxygen, etc. Biodegradable waste is used to produce biogas, compost, and energy manure. 

Common examples of biodegradable waste in municipal solid waste include food waste, green waste, and other biodegradable plastics.  

 

2. Non- Biodegradable waste  

A non-biodegradable material can be defined as a kind of substance that cannot be broken down by natural organisms and acts as a source of pollution. Non-biodegradable waste can be separated and recycled for further use. 

Non-biodegradable wastes that can be recycled are known as recyclable waste, and those which cannot be recycled are known as non-recyclable waste. Some examples of non-biodegradable waste are cans, metals, plastic bottles, etc. 

 

What is recycling? 

Recycling is the process of converting waste materials into new materials and objects. Materials like plastic bottles, paper, glass, cans & containers can be recycled and reused. The food waste from households and farms can also be converted into fertilizers, biogas, and slurries to feed animals. 

 

Learning Outcomes

Learner understands about 

  • Waste categories and the concept of recycling. 
  • Differentiating Biodegradable and Non-Biodegradable Waste.  
  • The importance of environmental consequences arising from various waste products.