Classification of materials on the basis of its properties

Our Objective

Classify the given materials on the basis of properties, such as hardness, solubility in water, floats in water, and transparency. 


The Theory

What are properties? 


A property isanything that describes a material or substance. It is a characteristic of that material such as the object's colour, shape, and hardness. 


The objects around us are made up of a large variety of materials. We choose a material to make an object based on its properties, and the purpose for which the object is to be used. A given material could be used to make a large number of objects. For example, plastic is used to make chairs, water bottles, storage containers etc. In the same way, it is also possible that an object could be made of a single material or of many different types of materials. Different types of materials have different characteristic properties.


Why classification? 


  • Things are grouped together for convenience and to study their properties. 
  • It helps in systematic study of objects. 
  • It helps to identify the difference between two separate categories. 
  • It helps in easily locating things. 
  • It makes it simple for us to spot and analyse any patterns in these groups.


Some of the properties on which materials can be classified are: 


  • Based on hardness: Soft / Hard 

    Materials which can be compressed or scratched easily are soft materials. Materials which are difficult to press are hard. 


  • Based on Floatation: Float / sink 

    Some materials when added or dropped in a liquid remain on the surface of the liquid. These materials are said to float in the given liquid. In          contrast, the materials that go down the surface and is submerged in water or any other liquid are said to sink in water. 


  • Based on Solubility: Soluble / Insoluble 

    Materials which dissolve in water are called soluble materials. Materials which did not dissolve in water after stirring for along are called                    insoluble materials.


  • Based on transparency: Transparent / Translucent / Opaque 

    Materials through which you can see clearly are transparent. Materials through which you cannot see clearly are translucent. Materials through      which you cannot see at all are opaque. 


  • Based on appearance: Lustrous / Non-lustrous or Rough / Smooth 

    Some materials are shiny or lustrous in appearance while others are not. Some are rough, some smooth. 


    In fact, one can classify materials based on any of their property as per our requirement. 



Learning Outcomes


  • Students learn about different properties of material. 
  • Students understand the importance of classification. 
  • Students learn about different ways of classification. 
  • Students learn to justify placing a random object in selected categories.