Show that metallic oxides are basic in nature

Our Objective

To show metallic oxides are basic


The Theory

An oxide is a chemical molecule that contains one or more oxygen atoms and another element, such as lithium dioxide, carbon dioxide, water, etc.

Oxides can be categorised as follows: 

  • Non-metallic oxides, the other combining element, is metallic. 
  • The oxide has a polymeric, molecular, and compound structure. 
  • Formation type, whether at the surface or in bulk. 
  • Peroxides and superoxides are forms of oxidation. 
  • Oxides have an acidic, basic, amphoteric, and neutral nature. 

Metal-containing binary oxygen compounds are known as metallic oxides, whereas non-metallic binary oxygen compounds are known as non-metallic oxides. Metallic oxides are formed when a metal reacts with oxygen. BaO and MgO are two examples of metallic oxides. Metallic oxides are usually basic in nature. This is because when they react with water, they produce basic compounds. 

Example: MgO+H2O⟶Mg(OH)2 

Non-metallic oxides are formed when a non-metal reacts with oxygen. Non-metallic oxides include, for example, SO2 and CO2. Non-metallic oxides are typically acidic. This is because when they react with water, acidic compounds are formed. 

A metal cation and an oxide anion are both present in crystalline solids known as metal oxides. Usually, they interact with water to create bases or acids to create salts. Heating the metal carbonates is a standard method of preparing the alkaline earth oxides. 

MCO3 + heat → MO + CO2 

Ionic metal oxides, such as those found in alkali and alkaline earth metals, react with water to produce basic metal hydroxide solutions. 

M2O + H2O → 2MOH (where M = group 1 metal) 

MO + H2O → M(OH)2 (where M = group 2 metal) 

They are frequently referred to as basic oxides as a result. They react with acids in normal acid-base reactions to form salts and water by their fundamental behaviour; for example, in the case, 

M2O + 2HCl → 2MCl + H2O (where M = group 1 metal). 

Comparison of Metal and Non-Metal Oxides Characteristics 

Metal Oxides 

Non-Metal Oxides 

Chemical Compounds containing metal and one or oxygen atoms 

Oxides formed by Non-Metal Elements 

Basic Compounds 

Acidic Compounds 

React with water forming basic solutions 

Reacts with water forming acidic solutions. 

Ionic Compounds 

Covalent Compounds 

Reacts with acids, forming salt 

React with bases, forming salt 


Learning Outcomes

  • Students will become familiar with terms like oxides, etc.
  • Students will be able to understand the nature of metallic oxides. 
  • Students will be able to test the basic nature of oxides using different compounds like rust etc. 
  • They can distinguish metal and non-metal oxides.