Morphology of Bacteria, Fungi and Different Plant Groups

Our Objective

Study the morphology of representative types of bacteria, fungi and different plant groups.  


The Theory


Morphology is the study of the characteristic features of a species. It could be a study of external or internal features. Morphological studies help in the identification and classification of organisms.



Algal cells are eukaryotic. Algae, for example, may photosynthesize like plants and have specialised cell organelles like centrioles and flagella that are exclusively found in animals. The algal cell walls consist of Mannans, Cellulose and Galatians. 

Types of algae 

1. Red Algae  

Red algae, which can also be known as Rhodophyta, is a distinctive species found in marine as well as freshwater ecosystems. The pigments phycocyanin and phycoerythrin are responsible for the characteristic red colouration of these algae. Other pigments that provide green colouration such as chlorophyll are present.   

2. Brown Algae  

The class Phaeophyceae includes a group of algae known as brown algae. Their colour, which ranges from brown to olive green. Most of their habitats are marine. The size and shape vary, and there are approximately 1500 species of brown algae. They have many cells, and the ratio of pigment and chlorophyll determines their colour.  

3. Green Algae  

It is a large, widely organized collection of algae that includes the essential pigments for photosynthetic activity, chlorophylls A and B, as well as auxiliary pigments like xanthophylls and beta carotene. Green algae carry out photosynthesis for higher creatures. Symbiotic relationships exist between different species of green algae and other living things. Members include flagellates, colonies, flagella, and unicellular organisms. 



These are tiny plants that thrive in moist, shaded environments. The Vascular tissues are absent in these categories. They reproduce using spores rather than flowers and seeds. Embryophytes like mosses, hornworts, and liverworts are categorized as Bryophyta.   

Types of bryophytes are: 

1. Liverworts  

Simple bryophytes with small, leathery bodies are liverworts that grow on the surfaces of still bodies of water or in flat, damp terrestrial settings. Most of the liverworts lack a genuine leaf network structure, the body is frequently referred to as a thallus. The thallus is frequently divided into lobes, and the size of the lobe varies depending on the species. 

2. Mosses  

Mosses is a complex bryophyte of tiny, axially organised, spirally or sequentially organised structures that resemble leaves. These leaf and stem-like structures cannot be regarded as actual leaves or stems because they lack the circulatory tissue typical of vascular plants. Rhizoids, or the roots of mosses, are present in mosses which allow them to attach to their substrates. 


The plants which do not have any flowers or seeds are called Pteridophytes. They are also known as Cryptogams. They are considered vascular plants with xylem and phloem, and it comes from ferns and horsetails. Mostly it is found in damp and shady places and the ferns are used for ornamental purposes in aquariums. 


Classes of pteridophytes are  

Psilopsida - They are the most primitive and the leaves are mostly absent. Example - Psilotum and Tmesipteris. 

Lycopsida - They are commonly known as club moss and have well - differentiated plant bodies with adventitious root, stem, rhizophores and leaves. Example - Selaginella, Lycopodium. 

Sphenopsida - They are commonly known as horsetail, and they have well differentiated plant bodies with roots arising from nodes of the underground rhizome, stem, and scaly leaves. Example - Equisetum. 

Pteropsida - They are commonly known as a fern and have well - differentiated plant bodies with roots, stem, and leaves. Examples - Dryopteris, Adiantum. 



These are vascular plants of the Kingdom Plantae. The Gymnosperms bear naked seeds, and they bear seeds directly on the sporophylls without any cover. In those plants, the ovules are not enclosed by the ovary wall. 



Angiosperms are widely distributed, and they easily adapt to any terrestrial habitat. They are called vascular plants. They bear the seeds in fruits or in mature ovaries. In angiosperm, they form the flower which carries reproductive organs and fruits.  


Learning Outcomes 

  • Students will learn the morphology of bacteria, fungi, algae and plant groups. 
  • Students understand the types of bacteria, algae and other plant groups. 
  • Students can learn the habitats and structures of organisms.