Modifications of Stem

Materials required  

  • Specimens of ginger 
  • Potato 
  • Onion 
  • Taro (Elephant ears) 
  • Yam (sweet potatoes) 
  • Whole plant of wood sorrel (Oxalis
  • Mint 
  • Water lettuce or water hyacinth (Eichhornia)  
  • Mums (Chrysanthemum
  • Tendrils of Passion fruit (Passiflora sp
  • Thorns of Pomegranate, Lemon, or Paper flower (Bougainvillea) or Auri (Acacia
  • Phylloclade of Cactus (Opuntia)  
  • Butcher's broom plant (Ruscus
  • Sparrow grass (Asparagus) or other locally available specimens

 

Procedure

Real lab procedure 

  • Carefully observe each specimen's external morphology and differences in each type of stem modification. 

 

Simulator Procedure 

  • Show a description of modifications of stem and types.  
  • Click on the next icon. 
  • From the given description, learn about the stem modifications of storage of food. 
  • Click on the next icon to see examples of stem modifications for the storage of food.  
  • Click on the next icon to learn about the details of the plant ginger by clicking on the labelling scale leaf, bud, and node.  
  • Click on the next icon to observe and learn about the other stem modification examples for the storage of food.  
  • Click on corm, tuber, and bulb titles to learn about the modification benefits.  
  • Click on the next icon.  
  • Drag and drop the correct options in the box to fill it out and make a flow chart.  
  • Click on the next icon.  
  • From the given description, learn about the stem modifications for vegetative propagation. 
  • Click on the next icon to view the examples.  
  • Click on the next icon to observe and learn about the stem modification examples of vegetative propagation. 
  • Click on stolon, runner, sucker, and offset titles to learn about the modification benefits.  
  • Click on the next icon.  
  • Drag and drop the correct options in the box to answer the questions.  
  • Click on the next icon.  
  • From the given description, learn about the stem modifications of protection, support, and photosynthesis.  
  • Click on the next icon to view the examples.  
  • Click on the next icon to Drag and drop in the box to match the correct options.  
  • Click on the reset icon to redo the experiment again.  

 

Observation and discussion  

  • From all the above examples, it is observed that the modified stems can perform additional functions, including food storage, vegetative propagation, support, protection, and photosynthesis.  
  • Also, the morphological details depict stem modifications and performance with benefits.