To separate solid particles from liquids and gases
Filtration is known as separating solid particles from a liquid or gaseous fluid using a filter medium that allows the fluid to pass through but retains the solid particles.
The mechanism of filtration is either physical, mechanical, or biological and the process is carried out by using a filter medium like filter paper, cloth, sintered glass, or asbestos. The pore size is larger than the solvent (liquid) but smaller than the solute (solid) resulting in the solvent being called filtrate and the solute being called residue. The pore size may vary depending on the solvent and solute.
The process of filtration applies based on two types of mixtures namely,
Heterogenous is a mixture of undistributed solute (solid) that is mixed with the solvent (liquid).
Example: Sand in water, Concrete, Salad.
In homogenous mixture, the solute (solid) is evenly distributed in the solvent (liquid). A homogeneous mixture is a uniformly composed gaseous, liquid, or solid sample with only one observed phase of matter.
Example: Air, Sugar water, Vinegar.
Water treatment: Wastewater treatment is crucial for environmental recycling and usage, using various filters to separate solvents (liquids) from sewage.
Rainwater harvesting: The rainwater is stored in the tanks and filtered thoroughly before being disinfected and used for household purpose.
Tea filtration: The prepared solvent (liquid tea) is separated using a filter or sieve from the solute (solid dust tea).
Wine making: The prepared mixture of grapevine is filtered to obtain the solvent of wine.
Kidney: As all know the kidney is working as a biological filter to clear out the urea and unwanted toxic particles from the blood.