Measure the change in Temperature during Chemical Reactions

Materials Required

  • Sodium hydroxide solution
  • Hydrochloric acid
  • Ammonium chloride
  • Barium hydroxide
  • Weighing balance
  • Seven beakers (250 mL)
  • Four thermometers (–10 °C to 110 °C) 
  • Measuring cylinder(100ml)
  • Spatula
  • Two glass rods
  • Distilled water

 

The Procedure

Real Lab Procedure

  • Take a 250ml empty beaker and place it on a weighing balance.
  • Press the TARE button on the weighing balance. Make sure it shows 0.000g as the weighing reading.
  • Take a spatula and take sodium hydroxide pellets and put them into the beaker till the weighing balance shows as a reading of 4.2g.
  • Now, add 100ml water to the beaker containing sodium hydroxide pellets using a measuring cylinder and shake the beaker until the sodium hydroxide pellet dissolves.
  • Take another 250ml empty beaker and place it on a weighing balance.
  • Press the TARE button on the weighing balance. Make sure it shows 0.000g as the weighing reading.
  • Take a spatula and take barium hydroxide and put it into the beaker till the weighing balance shows as a reading of 15.75g.
  • Now, add 100ml water to the beaker containing barium hydroxide pellets using a measuring cylinder and shake it till the barium hydroxide pellet dissolve.
  • Take a 250ml empty beaker and place it on a weighing balance.
  • Press the TARE button on the weighing balance. Make sure it shows 0.000g as the weighing reading.
  • Take a spatula and take ammonium chloride and put it into the beaker till the weighing balance shows as a reading of 5.35g.
  • Now, add 100ml water to the beaker containing ammonium chloride using a measuring cylinder and shake it till the ammonium chloride pellet dissolve.
  • Let us label beaker 1 as sodium chloride, 2 as barium hydroxide and 3 as ammonium chloride.
  • Take 20 ml of sodium hydroxide from beaker 1 using a measuring cylinder and pour the solution into a beaker labelled as A.
  • Take 20ml of hydrochloric acid from the bottle using a measuring cylinder and pour the solution into a beaker labelled as B.
  • Take 20 ml of Barium hydroxide from the bottle using a measuring cylinder and pour the solution into the beaker labelled as C.
  • Take 20 ml of ammonium chloride from the bottle using a measuring cylinder and pour the solution into the beaker labelled as D.
  • Take four thermometers from the beaker and ensure that the thermometer's mercury level is below 35 degrees Celsius before use.
  • Place the four thermometers in each beaker and note down the thermometer's reading.
  • Now, take beaker A and pour all the contents of beaker A into beaker B, insert the thermometer into the beaker, and note down the initial temperature reading.
  • Then mix the content in the beaker using a glass rod and again insert the thermometer to note down the final temperature reading.

Simulation Procedure

Simulation Procedure for preparing the solution

  • Click and select the chemical compound from the chemical bottles.
  • Drag and drop the beaker on top of the weighing balance.
  • Click on the tare button.
  • Click on the bottle cap to open the bottle.
  • Drag the spatula into the bottle containing the chemical compound.
  • Drop the spatula into the bottle to take some amount of chemical compound.
  • Drag the spatula containing the compound into the beaker placed on the weighing balance.
  • Drop the spatula into the same beaker to drop the chemical compound.
  • Drag and drop the beaker to the beaker.
  • Drag the beaker containing 100ml water into a beaker containing the chemical compound to pour the water.
  • Drag and drop the glass rod into the beaker to stir the solution. 
  • Repeat the steps mentioned above for preparing the solution of other chemical compounds.

Simulation procedure for the experiment

  • Drag the beaker containing Sodium hydroxide solution into the empty beaker labelled as sodium hydroxide.
  • Drop the Sodium hydroxide solution into an empty beaker labelled as sodium hydroxide.
  • Drag the beaker containing Ammonium chloride solution into the empty beaker labelled as ammonium chloride.
  • Drop the Ammonium chloride solution into an empty beaker labelled as ammonium chloride.
  • Drag the beaker containing Barium hydroxide solution into the empty beaker labelled as Barium hydroxide.
  • Drop the Barium hydroxide solution into an empty beaker labelled as Barium hydroxide.
  • Click on the glass stopper bottle cap to open.
  • Drag the glass stopper bottle containing Hydrochloric acid into an empty beaker labelled as hydrochloric acid.
  • Drop the Hydrochloric acid into an empty beaker labelled hydrochloric acid.
  • Click on 'Next Button'.
  • Drag the thermometer into the beaker containing hydrochloric acid.
  • Drag the thermometer into the beaker containing ammonium chloride.
  • Drag the thermometer into the beaker containing barium hydroxide solution.
  • Drag the thermometer into the beaker containing sodium hydroxide solution.
  • Drag the beaker containing sodium hydroxide into the beaker labelled as hydrochloric acid.
  • Drop the beaker containing sodium hydroxide solution into the beaker containing hydrochloric acid to pour the solution into the beaker containing hydrochloric acid.
  • Drag a thermometer into the beaker containing the sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid solution.
  • Drop into the beaker containing the sodium hydroxide solution and hydrochloric acid solution.
  • Click on the glass rod to stir the solution.
  • Drag a thermometer into the beaker containing the sodium hydroxide solution and hydrochloric acid solution.
  • Drag the beaker containing barium hydroxide solution into the beaker containing ammonium chloride.
  • Drop the beaker containing barium hydroxide into the beaker containing ammonium chloride to pour the solution into the beaker containing ammonium chloride.
  • Drag a thermometer into the beaker containing the solution of barium hydroxide and ammonium chloride.
  • Drop into the beaker containing the solution of barium hydroxide and ammonium chloride.
  • Click on the glass rod to stir the solution.
  • Drag a thermometer into the beaker containing the solution of barium hydroxide and ammonium chloride.

 

Observations and Calculations

(i)Temperature of the sodium hydroxide solution          = ___ oC =___ K 

(ii)Temperature of the hydrochloric acid                        = ___ oC =___ K  

(iii)Temperature of the barium hydroxide solution         = ___ oC =___ K 

(iv)Temperature of the ammonium chloride                   = ___ oC =___ K 

(v) Room Temperature                                            = ___ oC =___ K     

Sl.         

Reactants of the reaction 

Initial temperature of the reaction mixture 

Final Temperature of the reaction mixture 

Change in temperature 

 

 

Q1 (°C) 

Q2 (°C) 

Q2-Q1 (°C) 

 NaOH + HCl 

 

 

 

Ba(OH)2.8H2O + 2NH4Cl 

 

 

 

 

Results and Discussion

Based on the observations of the change in Temperature in two reactions, infer the nature of the two chemical reactions (exothermic or endothermic). 

The reaction between sodium hydroxide solution and hydrochloride acid is _____________________ ; and the reaction between barium hydroxide solution and ammonium chloride is _____________________ .

Precaution

  • Stir the reaction mixture very gently, so there is no heat loss during stirring.
  • Wash the thermometer and glass rod with water before inserting them into another reactant or reaction mixture.