Reproduction in Yeast Cell

Our Objective

To study the presence of micro-organism in pond water.


The Theory


Single-celled organisms known as micro-organisms can be found in the four kingdoms - plant, bacteria, fungi, and protozoa. While all micro-organisms seem to be same, they are the most diverse group of organisms in the world for their minute size being one of the few things that they share with one another.

Without these micro-organisms, ecological processes and food webs could not exist; life itself would be impossible. The carbon cycle is promoted, oxygen is produced, decomposition is aided, and nutrients are released by the help of micro-organism.

Four Divisions 

  1. Bacteria 
  2. Fungi 
  3. Protozoa 
  4. Algae


They are exceptional at aiding in ecosystem breakdown and nitrogen cycling due to their extraordinary capacity for rapid multiplication. There are heterotrophic bacteria and autotrophic bacteria, specifically. The former is in charge of decomposition and the cycling of nutrients, while the latter are typically called as cyanobacteria. 


It can be strange to think of fungi as microbes because they are frequently huge and simple to observe. However, fungi can also live in the form of tiny filaments known as hyphae and are single-celled organisms that initially grow quite small. Due to their heterotrophic nature, fungi release enzymes into the environment that transform substances and nutrients into forms that are usable to other organisms. 


Protozoa are microscopic, single-celled organisms that resemble animals in that they depend on the consumption of other species to provide them with the nutrients they require to survive. For example, bacteria help in the degradation of organic matter, and both the bacteria and the detritus are consumed by protozoans. Ponds commonly contain the species Euglena, Paramecium, amoebas, and ciliates. Protozoans are beneficial. 


The most well-known organism among ponds is algae. They can either be microscopic or gather to form large colonies. Algae are exceptionally important in pond ecosystems, as they are at the base of the food web. They are consumed by insects, which are in turn consumed by fish, birds, herps, and various mammals. Some animals will also directly eat algae. 


Learning Outcomes

  • Students understand the concept of micro-organisms.
  • Students understand the four major divisions of the micro-organisms. 
  • Students understand the structure and uses of micro-organisms.