sin(x, n) to calculate the value of sin(x) using its Taylor series expansion

# Our Objective

To implement a Python function sin(x, n) to calculate the value of sin(x) using its Taylor series expansion up to n terms. Compare the values of sin(x) for different values of n with the correct value.

# The Theory

The sin(x, n) function is designed to calculate the value of sin(x) using its Taylor series expansion up to n terms. Here's the theory content explaining the concepts used in this function:

• Taylor Series Expansion of sin(x): The Taylor series expansion is a way to represent a function as an infinite sum of terms. The Taylor series expansion of the sine function (sin(x)) is given by: sin(x) = x - (x^3 / 3!) + (x^5 / 5!) - (x^7 / 7!) + ... + (-1)^n * (x^(2n+1) / (2n+1)!) + ...
• Each term in the series involves alternating signs and increasing powers of x, and the factorial function (n!) calculates the factorials of the odd numbers in the denominators.
• The sin(x, n) Function: The sin(x, n) function in Python is defined to calculate the value of sin(x) using its Taylor series expansion up to n terms.
• Calculation of sin(x) using Taylor Series: The function uses a loop to iterate from 0 to n, representing the number of terms to use in the Taylor series expansion. In each iteration, it calculates the i-th term of the series using the formula: term = (-1)^i * (x^(2i+1)) / (2i+1)!
• The sign alternates with each term, and the powers of x increase by 2 in each successive term. The factorial function (fact(n)) is called to calculate the factorial of (2i+1).
• The calculated term is added to a running total 'tot' in each iteration.
• Returning the Result: After the loop, the function returns the final value of 'tot', which represents the approximate value of sin(x) using the Taylor series expansion with 'n' terms.

# Learning Outcomes

• Approximation: Taylor series provide a powerful tool for approximating functions. By expanding a function into a series of polynomial terms, we can approximate the behavior of the function around a specific point.
• Analytical Tools: Taylor series allow us to derive analytical expressions for functions that may be difficult to work with directly. By expanding a function into a series, we can often simplify calculations and gain insight into the behavior of the function.
• Error Analysis: The use of Taylor series involves truncation or stopping the expansion at a finite number of terms. Understanding Taylor series helps in analyzing and estimating the error introduced by using a truncated series as an approximation.