Measure the Temperature of Water when it is Heated, Boiling and Cooling

# Our Objective

Measure the temperature of water when it is being heated, when it is boiling and when it is cooling.

# The Theory

## Temperature

The temperature of a thing is an accurate indicator of how hot it is. A thermometer is a device that measures temperature. The first invention to measure the temperature was done by Galileo. The direction in which heat energy would naturally flow from a hotter (higher) body to a colder (lower) body (one at a lower temperature) is indicated by the temperature, which is a measure of hotness or coldness expressed on any of a large number of arbitrary scales. Most frequently, three temperature scales are used. Out of these, the Celsius (°C) and Fahrenheit (°F) temperature scales are the most used in science and are found everywhere. The international standard for measuring temperature in scientific applications is the Kelvin (K) scale. Measurement of elevated temperatures is defined as pyrometry.

## Thermometer

A thermometer is a tool used to gauge temperature or a temperature gradient, or the degree to which an object is hot or cold.

## Clinical Thermometer

Most people use clinical thermometers at home. A glass tube with a temperature-measuring bulb at one end and a closed end makes up a clinical thermometer. The glass tube and this bulb are each partially filled with a thermometric liquid, such as mercury or alcohol. Vacuum fills the remainder of the tube's volume. The glass tube has a kink near the end that prevents the thermometric liquid from spilling after it is removed from the hot body being observed. These thermometers are primarily used to gauge a person's body temperature. A clinical thermometer only measures temperatures between 35 and 42 degrees Celsius.

## Laboratory Thermometer

Laboratory thermometers are designed to measure the temperature of surrounding objects, not the body temperature of humans.
The range of the laboratory thermometer is -10 °C to 110 °C. Therefore, measurements can be obtained from 0 °C to below -10 °C. Temperature measurement at 100°C is also possible. There is a kink near the bulb of the thermometer.

# Learning Outcomes

• Students can understand about the concept of temperature.
• Students will come to know about the difference between clinical and laboratory thermometer.