Characteristics of Dicot and Monocot Stem and Root


Our objective is to prepare temporary stained glycerine mounts of transverse sections of the stem and root of Dicot and Monocot plants.


What is plant anatomy?

Stems and roots of plants are made up of different types of tissues. These tissues form different layers in the composition of stems and roots.  Plant anatomy is the general term for the study of the internal structure of plants.

To study the structural details of the stem or root of a monocot or dicot plant, it is essential to be familiarized with the sectioning and staining techniques used with plant materials.  It is also necessary to take the sections with uniform thickness so that the light passes through them equally and the different tissues found in the material are clearly visible under the microscope. To examine the tissues clearly, it is desirable to stain the section with suitable stains, as different stains colour the tissues differently.

Anatomy of Plant Stems and Roots

We will now look at the anatomy of dicot and monocot stems and roots.

Comparison of the Anatomy of Dicot  and Monocot Stems

Comparison of the Anatomy of Dicot and Monocot Roots

Points to Note

Conjoint:  Xylem and phloem occurs in same bundle.

Collateral: Phloem lies towards the outerside and xylem occurs towards the inner side.

Open: Cambium is present between phloem and xylem.

Closed: Cambium is absent between phloem and xylem.

Exarch: Protoxylem lies towards the outerside and metaxylem towards the centre.

Endarch: Metaxylem lies towards the outer side and protoxylem towards the inner side.

Learning Outcomes

  • Students learn sectioning and staining techniques used with plant materials.
  • Students learn about anatomy of monocot and dicot stems and roots.

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