Tests for the functional groups

Real Lab Procedure

Tests for Unsaturation

Experiment Procedure Observation Inference
Bromine Test Dissolve a little of the given organic compound in about 2 ml of distilled water in a test tube and add few drops of bromine water to it and shake well. Disappearance of orange-red colour of bromine. Compound is unsaturated.
No disappearance of orange-red colour. Compound is saturated.
Baeyer's Test (Alkaline KMnO4 Test) Dissolve a little of the given organic compound in about 2 ml of distilled water in a test tube and add few drops of alkaline solution of KMnO4 to it and shake well. Disappearance of pink colour of KMnO4. Compound is unsaturated.
No disappearance of pink colour of KMnO4. Compound is saturated.

Tests for Alcoholic Group

Experiment Procedure Observation Inference
Sodium metal Test


 
Take about 1 ml of the given liquid in a dry test tube, add about 1gram of anhydrous calcium sulphate and shake well to remove water. Filter the liquid into another clean dry test tube and add a small piece of sodium metal. Brisk effervescence is produced. Brisk effervescence is due to the evolution of hydrogen gas indicating the presence of alcoholic group.
Ester Test Take about 1 ml of the give liquid in a clean dry test tube, add about 1 ml glacial acetic acid and 2-3 drops of conc. sulphuric acid. Warm the mixture on a water bath for about 10 minutes. Pour it into about 20 ml of cold water taken in a beaker and smell. A fruity smell is produced. Presence of alcoholic group.
Ceric ammonium nitrate Test Take about 1 ml of the given liquid in a clean dry test tube and add few drops of ceric ammonium nitrate reagent and shake it well. Pink or red colour is developed. Presence of alcoholic group.
Acetyl chloride Test Take about 2 ml of the given liquid in a clean dry test tube, add 1 g of anhydrous calcium sulphate and shake well to remove water. Filter the liquid into another clean dry test tube and to the filtrate, add 2-3 drops of acetyl chloride. Shake the test tube well and bring a glass rod dipped in ammonium hydroxide solution near the mouth of the test tube. White fumes are produced. Presence of alcoholic group.

Distinguishing Tests for Primary, Secondary and tertiary Alcohols

Experiment Procedure Observation Inference
 Lucas Test Take about 1 ml of dry alcohol in a clean dry test tube and add 8-10 drops of Lucas reagent. Shake the mixture well. If cloudiness appears immediately. Presence of tertiary alcohol.
If cloudiness appears within five minutes. Presence of secondary alcohol.
If cloudiness appears only upon heating. Presence of primary alcohol.

Tests for Phenolic Group

Experiment Procedure Observation Inference
Litmus Test Place a drop of the given liquid (or a crystal if solid) on a moist blue litmus paper. Blue litmus turns to red. Presence of phenoilc group.
Ferric chloride Test Take about 1 ml of neutral ferric chloride solution in a clean test tube and add 2-3 drops of the given liquid (or crystal is solid). Violet colour is seen. Presence of phenolic group.
Liebermann’s Test Take a small quantity of sodium nitrite in a clean dry test tube and add about 1 ml of the given liquid (or crystal if solid). Heat the test tube very gently for half a minute and allow it to cool. Then add about 1 ml of conc. sulphuric acid and shake the test tube to mix the contents. A deep blue or green colouration is seen. Presence of phenolic group.
Add distilled water carefully to the test tube. Colour turns to red.
Add excess of sodium hydroxide solution to the test tube. Deep blue or green colour appears.
Phthalein Dye Test Take 1 ml of the given liquid in a clean dry test tube (or crystal if solid) and add 1-2 drops of conc. sulphuric acid. Heat the test tube for about 1 minute in an oil bath. Cool and pour the reaction mixture carefully into a beaker containing 15 ml of dil. sodium hydroxide solution. Pink colour is seen.
 
Presence of phenolic group.

Tests for Aldehydic and Ketonic Groups

Experiment Procedure Observation Inference
2,4-Dintrophenyl hydrazine Test Take a small quantity of the given compound in a clean dry test tube, add rectified spirit until the compound just dissolves. Now add few drops of 2, 4-dinitrophenyl hydrazine solution. Cork the test tube, shake the mixture and allow it to stand for 5 minutes. Yellow or orange precipitate is formed. Presence of carbonyl group.
Sodium bisulphite Test Take about 2 ml of saturated solution of sodium bisulphite in a clean test tube and add a small quantity of the given compound. Cork the test tube, shake and leave it for 15-20 minutes. White crystalline precipitate is formed. Presence of carbonyl group.

Differentiating Tests for Aldehydes

Experiment Procedure Observation Inference
Schiff’s Test Dissolve a small quantity of the given compound in a clean test tube and add about 1 ml of Schiff’s reagent and shake it well. Pink colour is seen. Presence of aldehydic group is confirmed.
Tollen’s Test (Silver mirror test) Take about 1 ml of silver nitrate solution in a clean test tube and add 2-3 ml of dilute NaOH solution. A brown precipitate of silver oxide forms. Now add dilute ammonia solution dropwise until the brown precipitate of silver oxide just dissolves. To this add 3-4 drops of the given liquid (or 0.1 g if solid) and warm the test tube on a water bath for about 5 minutes. Shining silver mirror is formed. Presence of aldehydic group is confirmed.
Fehling’s Test Take 1 ml each of Fehling’s solution A and B in a test tube. Add 4-5 drops of the given organic liquid (or 0.2g if solid) and warm the test in a water bath for 4-5 minutes. Red precipitate is formed. Presence of aldehydic group is confirmed.

Differentiating Tests for Ketones

Experiment Procedure Observation Inference
m-Dinitrobenzene Test Take a small quantity of the given compound in a clean test tube and add about 0.1g of finely powdered m-dinitrobenzene. Now add about 1 ml of dilute sodium hydroxide solution and shake it well. Violet colour is formed which slowly fades away. Presence of ketonic group is confirmed.
Sodium nitroprusside Test  Dissolve a small quantity of sodium nitroprusside in about 1 ml of distilled water in a clean test tube and then add a small quantity of the given compound. Shake the test tube well and add sodium hydroxide solution dropwise. Red colouration. Presence of ketonic group is confirmed.

Tests for Carboxylic Group

Experiment Procedure Observation Inference
Litmus Test Place a drop of the given liquid (or a crystal if solid) on a moist blue litmus paper.  Blue litmus turns to red. Presence of carboxylic group.
Sodium Hydrogen Carbonate Test Take 1 ml of the given organic compound in a test tube and add a pinch of sodium bicarbonate to it. Brisk effervescence is observed. Presence of carboxylic group.
Ester Test Take a small quantity of the given organic compound in a clean test tube, add 1 ml of ethyl alcohol and 1-2 drops of conc. sulphuric acid into it. Heat the reaction mixture on a water bath for about 5 minutes. Pour the mixture into a beaker containing water. You get a fruity smell. Presence of carboxylic group.

 Tests for Amino Group

Experiment Procedure Observation Inference
Solubility Test Take a small quantity of the given compound in a clean test tube and add 2-3 ml of dil.HCl and shake the test tube well. Compound is soluble in dil.HCl. Compound may be amine.
Litmus Test Place a drop of the given liquid (or a pinch of solid) on a moist red litmus paper. Red litmus turns to blue. Compound may be amine.
Carbylamines Test Take a small quantity of solid KOH in a clean dry test tube and add about 2 ml of ethanol. Warm the test tube until the pellets dissolve. To this add a few drops of chloroform and small amount of the given compound and warm gently. An offensive smell is produced. Presence of primary amine.
Azo-Dye Test Take three test tubes A, B and C. In test tube A, dissolve a small quantity of the compound in 2 ml of HCl. In test tube B, prepare an aqueous solution of sodium nitrite. In test tube C, dissolve a small quantity of β-naphthol in dilute sodium hydroxide. Place all the three test tubes in an ice bath. Now add sodium nitrite solution into test tube A and the resulting solution is added to test tube C. Formation of a red or orange dye. Presence of aromatic primary amine is confirmed.

Distinguishing Tests for Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Amines

Experiment Procedure observation Inference
Nitrous acid Test Make a solution of about 1 g of sodium nitrite in about 5 ml distilled water in a test tube and cool it in an ice bath. In a separate test tube, dissolve a small quantity of the given compound in about 1 ml of conc. sulphuric acid and cool this also in ice bath. Mix both the solutions. Bubbles of nitrogen gas. Presence of primary aliphatic amine.
Formation of a yellow oily layer. Presence of secondary amine.
No visible change. Presence of tertiary amine.
Hinsberg Test Take a small quantity of the given compound in a clean test tube, add about 2 ml of 25% NaOH, 2 ml of water and 1 ml of benzene sulphonyl chloride. Shake the mixture for about 10 minutes and then cool under tap water and note the formation of precipitate. Treat the precipitate with 2 ml of conc.HCl. No precipitate (clear solution). On addition of conc. HCl, insoluble material is seen. Presence of primary amine.
Precipitate is formed in the test tube. It does not dissolve in conc. HCl. Presence of secondary amine.
Precipitate is formed in the test tube. It dissolves in conc. HCl. Presence of tertiary amine.

Simulator Procedure (as performed through the Online Labs)

You can select the type from ‘Select the type’ drop down list.

Unsaturation

  • You can select the test from ‘Select the test’ drop down list.

Bromine Water Test

  • Drag the dropper to test tube A to add bromine water to the saturated compound.
  • Drag test tube A to shake it well.
  • You can see that bromine water does not decolourise.
  • Click on the inference icon to see the inference.
  • Drag the dropper to test tube B to add bromine water to the unsaturated compound.
  • Drag test tube B to shake it well.
  • You can see the decolourisation of bromine water.
  • Click on the inference icon to see the inference.
  • To redo the test, click on the ‘Reset’ button.

Note: Click on the ‘HELP’ button to see the instructions.

Baeyer’s Test

  • Drag the dropper to test tube A to add alkaline potassium permanganate to the saturated compound.
  • Drag test tube A to shake it well.
  • You can see that potassium permanganate solution does not decolourise.
  • Click on the inference icon to see the inference.
  • Drag the dropper to test tube B to add alkaline potassium permanganate to the unsaturated compound.
  • Drag test tube B to shake it well.
  • You can see the decolourisation of potassium permanganate solution.
  • Click on the inference icon to see the inference.
  • To redo the test, click on the ‘Reset’ button.

Note: Click on the ‘HELP’ button to see the instructions.

Functional group

  • You can select the functional group from ‘Select the functional group’ drop down list.

Alcohols

  • You can select the test from ‘Select the test’ drop down list.

Sodium Metal Test

  • Drag the spatula to test tube A to add anhydrous calcium sulphate to the sample.
  • Drag test tube A to shake it well and remove the moisture content in the sample.
  • Drag test tube A to test tube B to filter contents of A into B through the funnel and filter paper.
  • Click on the ‘Next’ button to go to the next process.
  • Drag the forceps to the bottle containing sodium metal to take a small piece of metal. .
  • Drag the forceps to the filter paper to place the sodium metal on the filter paper.
  • Drag the other filter paper to the filter paper containing sodium metal to press the sodium metal with the paper to dry it.
  • Drag the forceps to the filter paper to take the dry piece of sodium.
  • Drag the forceps to the test tube to put the dry piece of sodium into the sample.
  • You can see the formation of brisk effervescence inside the test tube.
  • Click on the inference icon to see the inference.
  • To redo the test, click on the ‘Reset’ button.

Note: Click on the ‘HELP’ button to see the instructions.

Ester Test    

  • Drag the dropper to the test tube to add glacial acetic acid to the sample.
  • Drag the dropper to the test tube to add Conc. sulphuric acid to the sample.
  • Click on the ‘Next’ button to go to the next process.
  • Drag the test tube to the beaker to place it in the water bath.
  • Click on the switch of the hot plate to heat the water bath.
  • Wait for 10 minutes to heat the contents of the test tube.
  • Drag the test tube to the small beaker to pour the contents of the test tube into the cold water.
  • A fruity smell is produced.
  • Click on the inference icon to see the inference.
  • To redo the test, click on the ‘Reset’ button.

Note: Click on the ‘HELP’ button to see the instructions.

Ceric Ammonium Nitrate Test

  • Drag the dropper to the test tube to add ceric ammonium nitrate solution to the sample.
  • Drag the test tube to shake it well.
  • You can see the formation of red colour in the test tube.
  • Click on the inference icon to see the inference.
  • To redo the test, click on the ‘Reset’ button.

Note: Click on the ‘HELP’ button to see the instructions.

Acetyl chloride test

  • Drag the spatula to test tube A to add anhydrous calcium sulphate to the sample.
  • Drag test tube A to shake it well and remove the moisture content in the sample.
  • Drag test tube A to test tube B to filter contents of A into B through the funnel and filter paper.
  • Click on the ‘Next’ button to go to the next process.
  • Drag the dropper to test tube B to drop acetyl chloride into the sample.
  • Drag test tube B to shake it well.
  • Drag the glass rod to the bottle to dip it in ammonium hydroxide solution and drag it again to test tube B to hold it over the mouth of the test tube.
  • You can see the formation of white fumes from the glass rod.
  • Click on the inference icon to see the inference.
  • To redo the test, click on the ‘Reset’ button.

Note: Click on the ‘HELP’ button to see the instructions.

Iodoform Test

  • Drag the dropper to the test tube to drop 1% iodine solution into the sample.
  • Drag the dropper to the test tube to drop dil. sodium hydroxide solution into the sample.
  • Click on the ‘Next’ button to go to the next process.
  • Drag the test tube to the beaker to place it in the water bath.
  • Click on the switch of the hot plate to heat the water bath.
  • Wait for 10 minutes to heat the contents of the test tube.
  • You can see the formation of a yellow precipitate in the test tube.
  • Click on the inference icon to see the inference.
  • To redo the test, click on the ‘Reset’ button.

Note: Click on the ‘HELP’ button to see the instructions.

Lucas Test

  • Drag the dropper to test tube A to drop Lucas reagent into tertiary alcohol.
  • Drag test tube A to shake it well.
  • You can see the immediate formation of cloudiness in the test tube.
  • Click on the inference icon to see the inference.
  • Drag the dropper to test tube B to drop Lucas reagent into secondary alcohol.
  • Drag test tube B to shake it well for 5 minutes.
  • You can see the formation of cloudiness in the test tube after 5 minutes.
  • Click on the inference icon to see the inference.
  • Drag the dropper to the test tube C to drop Lucas reagent into a primary alcohol.
  • Drag test tube C to shake it well and place it over the Bunsen burner.
  • Click on the knob of the burner to turn it on and heat the contents of test tube C.
  • You can see the formation of cloudiness in the test tube after heating.
  • Click on the inference icon to see the inference.
  • To redo the test, click on the ‘Reset’ button.
  • Note: Click on the ‘HELP’ button to see the instructions.
  • Phenols
  • You can select the test form ‘Select the test’ drop down list.
  • Litmus test
  • Drag the dropper to the moist blue litmus paper to drop the sample on it.
  • You can see that the blue litmus turns red.
  • Click on the inference icon to see the inference.
  • To redo the test, click on the ‘Reset’ button.

Note: Click on the ‘HELP’ button to see the instructions.

Ferric Chloride Test

  • Drag the dropper to the test tube to drop the sample into neutral ferric chloride solution.
  • Drag the test tube to shake it well.
  • You can see the formation of violet colour in the test tube.
  • Click on the inference icon to see the inference.
  • To redo the test, click on the ‘Reset’ button.

Note: Click on the ‘HELP’ button to see the instructions.

Liebermann’s Test

  • Drag the spatula to the test tube to add sodium nitrite into the sample.
  • Click on the knob of the burner to turn it on.
  • Drag the test tube over the Bunsen burner to heat the contents of the test tube.
  • Wait for 10 minutes to cool the contents of the test tube.
  • Drag the dropper to the test tube to drop Conc. sulphuric acid into it.
  • Drag the test tube to the canvas area to shake it well.
  • You can see the formation of a deep blue or green colour.
  • Click on the inference icon to see the inference.
  • Click on the ‘Next’ button to go to the next process.
  • Drag the dropper to the test tube to drop distilled water into the contents of the test tube.
  • You can see that the colour changes to deep red.
  • Click on the inference icon to see the inference.
  • Drag the dropper to the test tube to drop excess sodium hydroxide solution into the contents of the test tube.
  • You can see that the colour changes to deep blue or green.
  • Click on the inference icon to see the inference.
  • To redo the test, click on the ‘Reset’ button.

Note: Click on the ‘HELP’ button to see the instructions.

Phthalein Dye Test

  • Drag the spatula to the test tube to add phthalic anhydride into the sample.
  • Drag the dropper to the test tube to drop Conc. sulphuric acid into the sample.
  • Click on the ‘Next’ button to go to the next process.
  • Drag the test tube to the beaker to place it in the oil bath.
  • Click on the switch of the hot plate to heat the oil bath.
  • Wait for 10 minutes to heat the contents of the test tube.
  • Drag the test tube to the rack to return it.
  • Wait for 10 minutes to cool the contents of the test tube.
  • Drag the test tube to the small beaker to pour the contents of the test tube into the sodium hydroxide solution.
  • You can see that a pink colour has developed in the beaker.
  • Click on the inference icon to see the inference.
  • To redo the test, click on the ‘Reset’ button.

Note: Click on the ‘HELP’ button to see the instructions.

Aldehydes

  • You can select the test form ‘Select the test’ drop down list.

Schiff’s Test

  • Drag the dropper to the test tube to add Schiff’s reagent into the sample.
  • Drag the test tube to the canvas area to shake it well.
  • You can see the formation of pink colour in the test tube.
  • Click on the inference icon to see the inference.
  • To redo the test, click on the ‘Reset’ button.

Note: Click on the ‘HELP’ button to see the instructions.

Tollen’s Test

  • Drag the dropper to the test tube to drop silver nitrate solution into it.
  • Drag the dropper to the test tube to add dil. sodium hydroxide solution to silver nitrate solution.
  • You can see the formation of a brown precipitate in the test tube.
  • Click on the inference icon to see the inference.
  • Drag the dropper to the test tube to add dil. ammonia solution to the brown precipitate.
  • You can see that the brown precipitate dissolves in dil. ammonia.
  • Drag the dropper to the test tube to add the sample to it.
  • Click on the ‘Next’ button to go to the next process.
  • Drag the test tube to the beaker to place it in the water bath.
  • Click on the switch of the hot plate to heat the water bath.
  • Wait for 10 minutes to heat the contents of the test tube.
  • Click on the inference icon to see the inference.
  • To redo the test, click on the ‘Reset’ button.

Note: Click on the ‘HELP’ button to see the instructions.

Fehling’s Test

  • Drag the dropper to the test tube to drop Fehling’s solution A into the sample.
  • Drag the dropper to the test tube to drop Fehling’s solution B into the sample.
  • Click on the ‘Next’ button to go to the next process.
  • Drag the test tube to the beaker to place it in the water bath.
  • Click on the switch of the hot plate to heat the water bath.
  • Wait for some time to heat the contents of the test tube.
  • Click on the inference icon to see the inference.
  • To redo the test, click on the ‘Reset’ button.
  • Note: Click on the ‘HELP’ button to see the instructions.
  • 2,4 – Dinitrophenylhydrazine Test
  • Drag the dropper to the test tube to add rectified spirit into the sample.
  • Drag the test tube to shake it well.
  • Drag the dropper to the test tube to add 2,4–dinitrophenylhydrazine reagent to the sample.
  • Click on the inference icon to see the inference.
  • To redo the test, click on the ‘Reset’ button.
  • Note: Click on the ‘HELP’ button to see the instructions.
  • Sodium Bisulphite Test
  • Drag the dropper to the test tube to drop saturated solution of sodium bisulphite into the sample.
  • Drag the cork to the test tube to close the test tube with it.
  • Drag the test tube to shake it well.
  • Click on the inference icon to see the inference.
  • To redo the test, click on the ‘Reset’ button.

Note: Click on the ‘HELP’ button to see the instructions.

Ketones

  • You can select the test form ‘Select the test’ drop down list.

2,4–Dinitrophenylhydrazine Test

  • Drag the dropper to the test tube to add rectified spirit to the sample.
  • Drag the test tube to shake it well.
  • Drag the dropper to the test tube to add 2,4–dinitrophenylhydrazine reagent into the sample.
  • Click on the inference icon to see the inference.
  • To redo the test, click on the ‘Reset’ button.

Note: Click on the ‘HELP’ button to see the instructions.

Sodium Bisulphite Test

  • Drag the dropper to the test tube to drop saturated solution of sodium bisulphite into the sample.
  • Drag the cork to the test tube to close the test tube with it.
  • Drag the test tube to shake it well.
  • Click on the inference icon to see the inference.
  • To redo the test, click on the ‘Reset’ button.

Note: Click on the ‘HELP’ button to see the instructions.

m-dinitrobenzene Test

  • Drag the spatula to the test tube to add m-dinitrobenzene to the sample.
  • Drag the dropper to the test tube to add dil. sodium hydroxide to it.
  • You can see that a violet colour is developed in the test tube.
  • Drag the test tube to shake it well.
  • You can see that the violet colour slowly fades away.
  • Click on the inference icon to see the inference.
  • To redo the test, click on the ‘Reset’ button.

Note: Click on the ‘HELP’ button to see the instructions.

Sodium Nitroprusside Test

  • Drag the dropper to the test tube to add sodium nitroprusside solution to the sample.
  • Drag the test tube to shake it well.
  • Drag the dropper to the test tube to drop sodium hydroxide solution into it.
  • You can see the formation of a red colouration.
  • Click on the inference icon to see the inference.
  • To redo the test, click on the ‘Reset’ button.

Note: Click on the ‘HELP’ button to see the instructions.

Carboxylic Acids

  • You can select the test form ‘Select the test’ drop down list.

Litmus Test

  • Drag the dropper to the moist blue litmus paper to drop the sample on it.
  • You can see that the blue litmus turns red.
  • Click on the inference icon to see the inference.
  • To redo the test, click on the ‘Reset’ button.

Note: Click on the ‘HELP’ button to see the instructions.

Sodium Hydrogen Carbonate Test

  • Drag the spatula to the test tube to add sodium bicarbonate to the sample.
  • You can see the evolution of brisk effervescence in the test tube.
  • Click on the inference icon to see the inference.
  • To redo the test, click on the ‘Reset’ button.

Note: Click on the ‘HELP’ button to see the instructions.

Ester Test

  • Drag the dropper to the test tube to add ethyl alcohol into the sample.
  • Drag the dropper to the test tube to add conc. sulphuric acid into the sample.
  • Click on the ‘Next’ button to go to the next process.
  • Drag the test tube to the beaker to place it in the water bath.
  • Click on the switch of the hot plate to heat the water bath.
  • Wait for 10 minutes to heat the contents of the test tube.
  • Drag the test tube to the small beaker to pour the contents of the test tube into the cold water.
  • Click on the inference icon to see the inference.
  • To redo the test, click on the ‘Reset’ button.

Note: Click on the ‘HELP’ button to see the instructions.

Amines

  • You can select the test form ‘Select the test’ drop down list.

Solubility Test

  • Drag the dropper to the test tube to add dil. HCl into the sample.
  • Drag the test tube to shake it well.
  • Click on the inference icon to see the inference.
  • To redo the test, click on the ‘Reset’ button.

Note: Click on the ‘HELP’ button to see the instructions.

Litmus Test

  • Drag the dropper to the moist red litmus paper to drop the sample on it.
  • You can see that the red litmus turns to blue.
  • Click on the inference icon to see the inference.
  • Click on the inference icon to see the inference.
  • To redo the test, click on the ‘Reset’ button.

Note: Click on the ‘HELP’ button to see the instructions.

Carbylamines Test

  • Drag the dropper to the test tube to add ethanol to potassium hydroxide.
  • Click on the knob of the burner to turn it on.
  • Drag the test tube over the burner to warm the contents of the test tube.
  • Drag the dropper to the test tube to add chloroform to it.
  • Drag the dropper to the test tube to drop the sample into it.
  • Click on the knob of the burner to turn it on.
  • Drag the test tube over the burner to warm its contents for 10 minutes.
  • An offensive smelling compound is produced.
  • Click on the inference icon to see the inference.
  • To redo the test, click on the ‘Reset’ button.

Note: Click on the ‘HELP’ button to see the instructions.

Azo Dye Test

  • Drag the dropper to the test tube A to add dil. hydrochloric acid to the sample.
  • Drag test tube A to shake it well and dissolve the sample in dil. HCl.
  • Drag the dropper to the test tube C to add dil. sodium hydroxide to the β-naphthol.
  • Drag test tube C to shake it well and dissolve β-naphthol in dil.NaOH.
  • Click on the ‘Next’ button to go to the next process.
  • Drag test tubes A, B and C to place them in ice bath.
  • Wait for 10 minutes to cool the solutions.
  • Drag the test tubes to the test tube rack to place them in the rack.
  • Drag test tube B to test tube A to pour sodium nitrite solution into the sample.
  • Drag test tube A to test tube C to pour the resulting solution into alkaline solution of β-naphthol.
  • You can see a scarlet red coloured compound in the test tube.
  • Click on the inference icon to see the inference.
  • To redo the test, click on the ‘Reset’ button.
  • Note: Click on the ‘HELP’ button to see the instructions.

Nitrous Acid Test

  • You can select the amine form ‘Select the amine’ drop down list.

 Primary Amines

  • Drag the dropper to test tube A to add Conc. HCl to primary amine.
  • Drag the spatula to test tube B to add sodium nitrite to distilled water.
  • Drag test tube A to shake it well and dissolve the compound in Conc. HCl.
  • Drag test tube B to shake it well and dissolve sodium nitrite.
  • Click on the ‘Next’ button to go to the next process.
  • Drag test tubes A and B to place them in the ice bath.
  • Wait for 10 minutes to cool the solutions.
  • Drag the test tubes to the test tube rack to place them in the rack.
  • Drag test tube B to test tube A to pour sodium nitrite solution into primary amine.
  • You can see the evolution of gas bubbles in the test tube.
  • Click on the inference icon to see the inference.
  • To redo the test, click on the ‘Reset’ button.

Note: Click on the ‘HELP’ button to see the instructions.

Secondary Amines

  • Drag the dropper to test tube A to add Conc. HCl to secondary amine.
  • Drag the spatula to test tube B to add sodium nitrite to distilled water.
  • Drag test tube A to shake the test tube well and dissolve the compound in Conc. HCl.
  • Drag test tube B to shake the test tube well and dissolve sodium nitrite.
  • Click on the ‘Next’ button to go to the next process.
  • Drag test tubes A and B to place them in the ice bath.
  • Wait for 10 minutes to cool the solutions.
  • Drag the test tubes to the test tube rack to return them.
  • Drag test tube B to test tube A to pour sodium nitrite solution into secondary amine.
  • You can see the formation of a yellow oily layer in the test tube.
  • Click on the inference icon to see the inference.
  • To redo the test, click on the ‘Reset’ button.

Note: Click on the ‘HELP’ button to see the instructions.

Tertiary Amines

  • Drag the dropper to test tube A to add Conc. HCl to tertiary amine.
  • Drag the spatula to test tube B to add sodium nitrite to distilled water.
  • Drag test tube A to shake the test tube well and dissolve the compound in Conc. HCl.
  • Drag test tube B to shake it well and dissolve sodium nitrite.
  • Click on the ‘Next’ button to go to the next process.
  • Drag test tubes A and B to place them in ice bath.
  • Wait for 10 minutes to cool the solutions.
  • Drag the test tubes to the test tube rack to return them.
  • Drag test tube B to test tube A to pour sodium nitrite solution into tertiary amine.
  • You cannot see any characteristics changes in the test tube.
  • Click on the inference icon to see the inference.
  • To redo the test, click on the ‘Reset’ button.

Note: Click on the ‘HELP’ button to see the instructions.

Hinsberg Test

  • You can select the amine form ‘Select the amine’ drop down list.

Primary Amine

  • Drag the dropper to the test tube to add 25% sodium hydroxide solution to primary amine.
  • Drag the dropper to the test tube to add water to the test tube.
  • Drag the dropper to the test tube to add benzene sulphonyl chloride to the test tube.
  • Drag the test tube to shake it well.
  • Click on the ‘Next’ button to go to the next process.
  • Drag the test tube to the beaker to place it in the beaker containing water.
  • Wait for 10 minutes to cool the contents of the test tube.
  • Drag the test tube to the test tube rack to return it.
  • Drag the dropper to the test tube to add Conc. hydrochloric acid to it.
  • You can see the formation of a white precipitate in the test tube.
  • Click on the inference icon to see the inference.
  • To redo the test, click on the ‘Reset’ button.

Note: Click on the ‘HELP’ button to see the instructions.

Secondary Amine

  • Drag the dropper to the test tube to add 25% sodium hydroxide solution into secondary amine.
  • Drag the dropper to the test tube to add water to the test tube.
  • Drag the dropper to the test tube to add benzene sulphonyl chloride to the test tube.
  • Drag the test tube to shake it well.
  • Click on the ‘Next’ button to go to the next process.
  • Drag the test tube to the beaker to place it in the beaker containing water.
  • Wait for 10 minutes to cool the contents of the test tube.
  • You can see the formation of a white precipitate in the test tube.
  • Drag the test tube to the test tube rack to return it.
  • Drag the dropper to the test tube to add Conc. hydrochloric acid to it.
  • You cannot see any characteristics changes in the test tube.
  • Click on the inference icon to see the inference.
  • To redo the test, click on the ‘Reset’ button.

Note: Click on the ‘HELP’ button to see the instructions.

Tertiary Amine

  • Drag the dropper to the test tube to add 25% sodium hydroxide solution to tertiary amine.
  • Drag the dropper to the test tube to add water to the test tube.
  • Drag the dropper to the test tube to add benzene sulphonyl chloride to the test tube.
  • Drag the test tube to shake it well.
  • Click on the ‘Next’ button to go to the next process.
  • Drag the test tube to the beaker to place it in the beaker containing water.
  • Wait for 10 minutes to cool the contents of the test tube.
  • You can see the formation of a white precipitate in the test tube.
  • Drag the test tube to the test tube rack to return it.
  • Drag the dropper to the test tube to add Conc. hydrochloric acid to it.
  • You can see that the white precipitate dissolves.
  • Click on the inference icon to see the inference.
  • To redo the test, click on the ‘Reset’ button.

Note: Click on the ‘HELP’ button to see the instructions

Cite this Simulator: